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Applied Research in Environmental Science - ENVI 201 - Kelly & Stander

What's the big deal?

IMRaD - common formatting for scientific research articles


Explains the scope and objective of the study and places it in the context of previously published studies on the subject (a literature review)

Materials and Methods

The what and how for conducting the study: what was used and how it was done


Reports what was found in the study, often using a lot of statistics, charts, and graphs


Explains the significance of the results and the meaning the researchers interpret from the results; often includes suggestions for further research and/or describes limitations of the study