Research Guides: Chicago Citation Style - Notes and Bibliography Format

Bookmark and Share
About Chicago Style
Based on The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition

The Chicago Manual of Style offers two citation formats:
  • notes & bibliography
  • author-date

This guide offers examples of the notes & bibliography format. Be sure to ask your professors which style they require.
Electronic Sources
Scholarly Article
Use this for scholarly journal articles found online through a search engine or from one of the library databases. Determine if the article has a DOI (digital object identifier) and use the appropriate format from below. 

Article with a DOI:
Ex (Footnotes):

1. Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts, “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network,”
American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411, accessed February 28, 2010, doi:10.1086/599247.

Ex. (Subsequent):
2. Kossinets and Watts, “Origins of Homophily,” 439.

Ex. (Bibliography):
Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.”
American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 405–50. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi: 10.1086/599247.

Article without a DOI:
If an article does not have a DOI, use the URL instead.

For articles without a DOI, retrieved from a library database, use the URL for the home page of the database; e.g. http://search.proquest.com.
Online Newspaper or Magazine Article
Ex. (Footnote):
1. Sheryl Gay Stolberg and Robert Pear, “Wary Centrists Posing Challenge in Health Care Vote,” New York Times, February 27, 2010, accessed February 28, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/28/us/politics/28health.html.

Ex. (Subsequent):
2. Stolberg and Pear, “Wary Centrists.”

Ex. (Bilbiography):
Stolberg, Sheryl Gay, and Robert Pear. “Wary Centrists Posing Challenge in Health Care Vote.” New York Times, February 27, 2010. Accessed February 28, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/28/us/politics/28health.html.
E-book
If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, list a URL; include an access date only if one is required by your publisher or discipline.

If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.

Ex. (Footnote):
1. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2007), Kindle edition.
2. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), accessed February 28, 2010, http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

Ex. (Subsequent):
3. Austen, Pride and Prejudice.
4. Kurland and Lerner, Founder’s Constitution, chap. 10, doc. 19.

Ex. (Bibliography):
Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics, 2007. Kindle edition.
Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. Accessed February 28, 2010. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.
Single Page or Entire Website
Ex. (Footnotes):
1. “Google Privacy Policy,” last modified March 11, 2009, http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.
2. “McDonald’s Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts,” McDonald’s Corporation,
accessed July 19, 2008, http://www.mcdonalds.com/corp/about/factsheets.html.

Ex. (Subsequent):
3. “Google Privacy Policy.”
4. “Toy Safety Facts.”

Ex. (Bibliography):
Google. “Google Privacy Policy.” Last modified March 11, 2009. http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.
McDonald’s Corporation. “McDonald’s Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts.” Accessed July 19, 2008. http://www.mcdonalds.com/corp/about/factsheets.html.
Blog Entry
Blog entries or comments may be cited in running text (“In a comment posted to The Becker-Posner Blog on February 23, 2010, . . .”) instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography.

The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations. There is no need to add pseud. after an apparently fictitious or informal name. (If an access date is required, add it before the URL; see examples elsewhere in this guide.)

Ex. (Footnotes):
1. Jack, February 25, 2010 (7:03 p.m.), comment on Richard Posner, “Double Exports in Five Years?,” The Becker-Posner Blog, February 21, 2010, http://uchicagolaw.typepad.com/beckerposner/2010/02/double-exports-in-five-years-posner.html.

Ex. (Subsequent):
2. Jack, comment on Posner, “Double Exports.”

Ex. (Bibliography):
Becker-Posner Blog, The. http://uchicagolaw.typepad.com/beckerposner/.
Email Communication
E-mail and text messages may be cited in running text (“In a text message to the author on March 1, 2010, John Doe revealed . . .”) instead of in a note, and they are rarely listed in a bibliography.

Ex. (Footnote):
1. John Doe, e-mail message to author, February 28, 2010.
Print Sources
Book
One Author:
Ex. (Footnote):

1. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.

Ex. (Subsequent):
2. Pollan, Omnivore’s Dilemma, 3.

Ex. (Bibliography):
Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.

Two or More Authors:
Ex. (Footnote):
1. Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945 (New York: Knopf, 2007), 52.

Ex. (Subsequent):
2. Ward and Burns, War, 59–61.

Ex. (Bibliography):
Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York: Knopf, 2007.

Four or More Authors: 
Ex. (Footnote):
1. Dana Barnes et al., Plastics: Essays on American Corporate Ascendance in the 1960s (Boston: Penguin, 2002), 38.

Ex. (Subsequent):
2. Barnes et al., Plastics, 15.

Ex. (Bibliography):
Barnes, Dana, Howard Johnsten, Alexander Belghan, and Edward Thomas. Plastics: Essays on American Corporate Ascendance in the 1960s. Boston: Penguin, 2002.
Introduction, Preface, Forward, or Other Part of a Book:
Ex. (Footnote):

1. James Rieger, introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), xx–xxi.

Ex. (Subsequent):
2. Rieger, introduction, xxxiii.

Ex. (Bibliography):
Rieger, James. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, xi–xxxvii. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.
Scholarly Journal Article (Print)

Article with DOI
Ex. (Footnote):
1. Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts, “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network,” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411, accessed February 28, 2010, doi:10.1086/599247.

Ex. (Subsequent):
2. Kossinets and Watts, “Origins of Homophily,” 439.

Ex. (Bibliography):
Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 405–50. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.

Article without DOI:
If no DOI is available, list a URL. Include an access date only if one is required by your publisher or discipline.
Ex. (Footnote):
1. Henry E. Bent, “Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree,” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 141, accessed December 5, 2008, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1978286.

Ex. (Bibliography):
Bent, Henry E. "Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree.” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 0-145. Accessed December 5, 2008. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1978286.
 

Magazine or Newspaper Article (Print)

Newspaper and magazine articles may be cited in running text (“As Sheryl Stolberg and Robert Pear noted in a New York Times article on February 27, 2010, . . .”) instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography.

If you consulted the article online, include a URL; include an access date only if your publisher or discipline requires one. If no author is identified, begin the citation with the article title.

Ex. (Footnote):
1. Daniel Mendelsohn, “But Enough about Me,” New Yorker, January 25, 2010, 68.
2. Sheryl Gay Stolberg and Robert Pear, “Wary Centrists Posing Challenge in Health Care Vote,” New York Times, February 27, 2010, accessed February 28, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/28/us/politics/28health.html.


Ex. (Subsequent):
3. Mendelsohn, “But Enough about Me,” 69.
4. Stolberg and Pear, “Wary Centrists.”

Ex. (Bibliography):
Mendelsohn, Daniel. “But Enough about Me.” New Yorker, January 25, 2010.
Stolberg, Sheryl Gay, and Robert Pear. “Wary Centrists Posing Challenge in Health Care Vote.” New York Times, February 27, 2010. Accessed February 28, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/28/us/politics/28health.html.
Encyclopedia or Dictionary Entry (Print)
Ex. (Footnotes):
1. Encyclopedia Britannica, 15th ed., s.v. "salvation."
2. Andrew F. Smith, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004), s.v. "gnocchi."

Ex. (Bibliography):
Smith, Andrew F. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America. 2 vols. New York: Oxford Univeristy Press. 2004.

(Note: When citing a well-known source such as Britannica or Dictionary of American Biography, there is no need to include in Biobliography.)
Chapter in a Book

Ex. (Footnotes):
1. John D. Kelly, “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War,” in Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, ed. John D. Kelly et al. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), 77.

Ex. (Subsequent):
2. Kelly, “Seeing Red,” 81–82.

Ex. (Bibliography):
Kelly, John D. “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War.” In Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, edited by John D. Kelly, Beatrice Jauregui, Sean T. Mitchell, and Jeremy Walton, 67–83. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.

Footnotes - General Formatting Guidelines
  • The first time a work is cited, give the full publication information in the note. In subsequent uses, use a shortened version (last name, shortened title).
  • When citing the same work multiple times in a row, use “Ibid.,” followed by the page number.
  • Use commas between elements.
  • The footnote number follows all punctuation, including a period.
Bibliography - General Formatting Guidelines
  • Alphabetize by author’s last name. Lines should be double-spaced between and within entries.
  • First line of citation begins at margin; the following lines are indented ½”
  • Use periods between elements.
  • When using the same author’s name for more than one work in the Bibliography, use the “3-em dash” in place of the last name [Ctrl+Alt+Minus (on the number keypad)].
Additional Citation Resources
For more examples or for a format not listed here, try one of these sites.

The Chicago Manual of Style Online
http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

Purdue OWL Chicago Manual of Style Guide
https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/1/

We also have several books in our collection which offer more information:

A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Disserations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers (8th ed) by Kate Turabian
LB2393. T8 2013

The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed)
Z253. U69 2010
Still Need Help?
The librarians are here to help you!

Call us: 908-218-8865

Chat with us: Check if Live Help is Available at the top of this page.

Email us: reference@raritanval.edu

Visit us: Reference/Information Desk Library 1st floor

Or contact the Subject Specialist for this guide.