Research Guides: ASA Citation Style

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About ASA Style
Based on The American Sociological Association Style Guide, 4th Edition.
Electronic Sources
Entire Website
Author Last Name, First Name or Sponsoring Organization. Year of Publication. Title of Site. Retrieved Date (URL).

Ex (Article):
Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved April 12, 2011 (
Single Page on a Website
(Note: Include as much of the information required as you can find. You may have to go to the website’s homepage to find it.)

Author Last Name, First Name or Sponsoring Organization. Year of Publication. “Title of article or webpage.” Title of Site. Retrieved Date (URL).

Lewis, Jone Johnson. “Mother Shipton and the Prophecies of Mother Shipton.” Retrieved October 27, 2011 (
Scholarly Article
Use this for scholarly journal articles found online through a search engine or from one of the library databases. Determine if the article has a DOI (digital object identifier) and use the appropriate format from below. 

Article with a DOI:
Author Last Name, First Name. Year of Publication. “Title of Article.” Journal Title Volume(Issue):Page numbers. doi:xx.xxxx/xxxxxxxxx.

Del Puppo, Dario. 2011. “All the World is a Book: Italian Renaissance Printing in Global a Perspective.” Textual Cultures 6(2):1-22. doi:10.2979/textcult.6.2.1.

Article without a DOI:
Author Last Name, First Name. Year of Publication. “Title of Article.” Journal Title Volume(Issue). Retrieved Date (URL).

Walker, Greg. 2002."Rethinking the Fall of Anne Boleyn." The Historical Journal 45(1). Retrieved August 8, 2012 (

(Note: If a stable URL or “permanent link” is available, use that. Otherwise, use the homepage URL for the database or website.)
Print Sources
Scholarly Journal Article (Print)
Author Last Name, First Name. Year of Publication. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal Volume(Issue):Pages.

Ballard, Mary E., Shavonda Green, and Caroline Granger. 2003. "Affiliation,Flirting, and Fun: Mock Aggressive Behavior in College Students." Psychological Record 53(1):33-49.

(Note: Include as much Volume/Issue/Date information as the journal provides.)
Magazine or Newspaper Article (Print)
Author Last Name, First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine/Newspaper, Month and Day of Publication, Pp. ####.

Ziff, Larzer. 1995. "The Other Lost Generation," Saturday Review, February 20, pp. 15-18.
One Author:
Author Last Name, First Name. Year of Publication. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Boyer, Ernest L.1987. College: The Undergraduate Experience in America. New York: Harper & Row.

More than One Author:
Siebert, Al, Laurence N. Smith,and Timothy L. Walter. 2000. Student Success: How to Succeed in College and Still Have Time for Your Friends. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.

(Note: Omit comma before “and” when listing only two authors (Siebert, Aland Laurence N. Smith)

Edited Volume:

Alexander, Jeffrey C., Gary T. Marx and Christine L. Williams, eds. 2004. Self, Social Structure, and Beliefs: ExplorationsinSociology. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Chapter in an Edited Volume:
Author Last Name, First Name. Year of Publication. "Chapter Title." Pp. #### in Book Title. Volume, Name of Collection, edited by Book Editor's Initals Book Editor's Last Name. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Clausen, John. 1972. "The Life Course of Individuals." Pp. 457-514 in Aging and Society. Vol. 3, A Sociology of Stratification, edited by M.W. Riley, M. Johnson, and A. Foner. New York: Russell Sage.

Author Last Name, First Name. Year of Publication. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher. Retrieved Date (URL).

Williams, Charlotte and Mark R. D. Johnson. 2010. Race and Ethnicity in a Welfare Society. Berkshire: Open University Press. RetrievedMay 9, 2014 (
Work in an Anthology
This format is used for essays or works that are reprinted in a collection of essays/poems/short stories, etc. In an anthology, each essay (chapter) has a different chapter and the book has an editor. (If the same authors wrote all of the chapters, you should use the citation format for "Chapter in a Book.")

Author Last Name, First Name. Year of Publication. “Title.” Pp. ### in Title of Anthology, edited by (followed by name of Editor). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Mailer, Norman. 1985. “The Man Who Studied Yoga.” Pp. 285-297 in Anthology of American Literature Vol. 2, edited by George McMichael. 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

(Note: There may not always be an Editor, Volume or Edition. Skip these parts if there is not.)
Encyclopedia Article (Print)
Author Last Name, First Name (if available). Year of Publication. “Title of Article.” Pp. #### in Title of Encyclopedia edited by Name of Editor. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Ex (No author):
“Dwight David Eisenhower.” 1998. P. 235 in Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2nd ed.

(Note: For very common reference works such as Encyclopedia Britannica, do not include in Reference page, just cite in-text.)
Legislation, Statutes, or Court Cases
Court cases and legislative acts follow a format stipulated by legal publishers. The act or case is listed first, followed by volume number, abbreviated title, and the date of the work in which the act or case is found. The volume number is given in Arabic numerals, and the date is parenthesized. Court cases are italicized, but acts are not. Case names, including v., are italicized.

Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).

If retrieved from an online database, such as LexisNexis or HeinOnline, provide access information.

Ohio v. Vincer (Ohio App. Lexis 4356 [1999]).

U.S. Congress. House of Representatives. Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2007. H.R. 2. 110th Congress, 1st Session, 2007. Retrieved July 11, 2010  (
How to Make a Hanging Indent (Video)
View on YouTube for best quality.

Find Citation Info for Websites (Video)
Formatting Your ASA Paper
General Formatting
All text should be 12-point font and double spaced (including footnotes). Margins should be at least 1 1/4 inches on all sides. Pages should be number consecutively, starting with the Title Page.

Title Page
Include a separate title page with:
  • full title
  • authors' names and institutions
  • complete word count of the document (which includes footnotes and references)

A title footnote should include:
  • address of the corresponding author
  • grants/funding
  • additional credits and acknowledgements (for papers for sociology classes)
If an abstract is needed, it should be one paragraph (150-200 words) on a separate page, immediately after the title page, with the title of the document as the heading. Include a list of three to five words that help to identify main themes in the manuscript on the same page as the abstract.

First Page
The first page of the text should start with the title and be on a new page of text (after the title page and abstract).

Use subheadings to organize the body of the manuscript. Usually, three different levels of headings should be sufficient.

  • Place first-level heads in all caps and left-justify.
  • Don't use a bold font.
  • Don't begin the manuscript with a heading, such as Introduction.
This is a Second-Level Head
  • Italicize and left-justify second-level heads.
  • Don't use a bold font.
  • Use title case.
This is a third-level head
  • Italicize and left-justify third-level heads.
  • Don't use a bold font.
  • Capitalize only the first word of the head.

Footnotes and Endnotes
Footnotes and endnotes are used to cite materials of limited availability, expand upon the text, or to add information presented in a table.

In the text, footnotes or endnotes should be numbered consecutively throughout the essay with superscript Arabic numerals.

Footnotes are placed at the bottom of the page on which the material being referenced appears. If using endnotes, at the end of the paper in a separate section following the references, type the endnotes in numerical order, double-spaced, as a separate section with the title Notes or Endnotes.

For more information, please consult the ASA Style Guide, Fourth Edition.
Citing Sources in Text
Citations in the text include the last name of the author(s) and year of publication. Include page numbers when quoting directly from a work or referring to specific passages. Identify subsequent citations of the same source in the same way as the first.

If the author’s name is in the text, follow it with the publication year in parentheses:
Ex: another study by Duncan (1959).

If the author’s name is not in the text, enclose the last name and publication year in parentheses:
...whenever it occurred (Gouldner 1963).

Pagination follows the year of publication after a colon, with no space between the colon and the page number:
...Kuhn (1970:71).

Joint authors should have both last names:
... (Martin and Bailey 1988).

If a work has three authors, cite all three last names in the first citation in the text; thereafter, use et al. in the citation. If a work has more than three authors, use et al. in the first citation and in
all subsequent citations.

First citation for a work with three authors:
...had been lost (Carr, Smith, and Jones 1962).
...(Carr et al. 1962)
Formatting Your References Page
References follow the text in a section headed REFERENCES (use first-level head format identified earlier). All references should be double-spaced and use a hanging indent.

All references should be in alphabetical order by first authors’ last names.

For repeated authors or editors, include the full name in all references. Arrange references for the same author in chronological order, beginning with the oldest.

When an author appears in both single-authored references and as the first author in a multiple-authored reference, place all of the single-authored references first, even though they may not be in the proper chronological order.

When the same first author appears in multiple references, arrange them alphabetically by the last name of the second author.

When including more than one work by the same author(s) from the same year, add letters to the year (2010a, 2010b, 2010c) and then list the references for that author and year alphabetically by title.
Additional Citation Resources
For more examples or for a format not listed here, try one of these sites.

American Sociological Association Quick Guide

Purdue OWL Formatting in Sociology Guide

University of Nebraska Kearny ASA Style Guide
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