MLA Style

Print Version

Taken from the new MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 7th Ed.

Formatting a Bibliography/Works Cited Section

What’s New!

  • MLA requires that titles are now italicized instead of underlined.
  • MLA requires that citations include the format of the work (i.e. web, print, radio, etc).
  • MLA no longer requires URLs if the item can be found by doing a simple internet search.
  • MLA requires that the citation include both the volume and issue number even if page numbers are included.

Arrangement of Entries. MLA 5.3.3 – 5.3.5

  • MLA requires a hanging indent in a list of works cited. In a hanging indent, the first line of each citation begins at the margin, and the following lines are indented by 1/2".
  • Double space within and between entries.
  • Alphabetize by author's last name.
  • Indicate format (i.e. Print, Web, Television etc)
  • If two or more sources are by the same author, alphabetize by second author’s last name or title of work and put 3 hyphens in place of author’s name.

Examples:

Kohn, Alfie. "Unconditional Teaching." Educational Leadership 63.1 (Sep. 2005) : 20-24. Web. ERIC . 13 May 2009.
---. "Why Self-Discipline Is Overrated: The (Troubling) Theory and Practice of Control from Within." Phi Delta Kappan 90.3 (Nov. 2008): 168-176. ERIC. Web. 13 May 2009.

Online Sources

Articles from Library Databases. MLA 5.6.3 - 5.6.4

Author. "Article Title." Name of Publication Volume. Issue (Date): Pages or n.pag. if there are no page numbers. Name of Database . Online. Date Month Year article accessed.

Examples:

Scholarly Article from database – pages indicated:

Larson, Thomas. "In Spite of Everything: The Definitive Indefinite Anne Frank." The Antioch Review 58.1 (2000): 40-54. OmniFullTextMega . Web. 9 December 2000.

In-text Citation: "Anne’s final power comes in realizing not her goodness but her regret" (Larson 51-52).

Scholarly Article from database – no pages:

Ben-Bassat, Nurith. "Holocaust Awareness and Education in the United States." Religious Education 95.4 (2000): n.pag. Academic Search Premier . Web. 5 November 2001.

In-text Citation: One of the first forms of Holocaust education was survivor accounts (Ben-Bassat).

Newspaper article from database online:

Slatalla, Michelle. "Dress-Up Dreams Fulfilled." New York Times [East Coast] 14 October 2004, Late Ed.: G4. Proquest Newspapers . Web. 2 November 2004.

In-text Citation: Halloween costume options are unlimited thanks to online shopping (Slatalla G4).

Court Case from database:

National Railroad Passenger Corporation v. Abner Morgan, Jr. 122 S. Ct. 2061. Supreme Court. 2002. Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe . Web. 27 September 2002.

In-text Citation: The court was allowed to hear the claims even though the employee filed them late(National Railroad…)

Literary criticism from database:

Inge, Tonette Bond and William E. Grant. "Katherine Chopin." Dictionary of Literary Biography: American Short-Story Writers , 1880-1910. Ed. Bobby Ellen Kimbel and William E. Grant. Vol. 78. Detroit: Gale Research, 1989. Literature Resource Center . Web. 7 May 2009.

In-Text Citation: Surprisingly, Chopin did not begin to write fiction until the age of 38 (Inge).

On-line encyclopedia:

Reill, Peter Hanns, and Ellen Judy Wilson. "Absolutism." Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment , rev. ed. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2004. Modern World History Online . Web. 7 May 2009.

In-Text Citation: The absolutist form of government that was popular in the 17th Century was gradually replaced by limited monarchies (Reill and Wilson).


General Websites: Not from a Database. MLA 5.6.1-5.6.2

Author if available. "Title of work or webpage." Title of Site . Editor or Sponsoring Organization - if none use N.p, Date of Publication or n.d for no date. Format. Date of Access. ‹url› Cite URL only when the reader cannot find the source by doing a simple internet search.

Examples:

Author, No Date:

Lewis, Jone Johnson. "Mother Shipton and the Prophecies of Mother Shipton." About.com . New York Times, n.d. Web. 7 May 2009. <See It!>

In-Text Citation: Even though many of her supposed predictions have come true, Mother Shipton is, most likely, a mythical person (Lewis).

No Author:

"Who is Anne Frank." Annefrank.com . The Anne Frank Center USA, 2008. Web. 6 May 2009. <See It!>

In-text Citation: During the Holocaust, Anne was forced to hide with her family in secret rooms for over two years ("Who is Anne Frank").

Wiki:

"Divorce." Lovetoknow Classic Encyclopedia . Lovetoknow 1911, 27 Oct. 2006. Web. 14 May 2009. <See It!>

In-text Citation: According to Roman Law, children of divorce would be placed with the father if the mother was found to be at fault ("Divorce").

Blog:

Elementaryhistoryteacher. "Evaluating Websites...A Must for the Information Age." History is Elementary . Blogspot.com, 13 May 2009. Web. 20 May 2009. <See It!>

In-text Citation: The blogger Elementaryhistoryteacher suggests conducting Google searches on website authors to help verify information found on the Internet.

Podcast:

Stephens, Jason. "Cheating: why students do it and how teachers can prevent it." Teachers for a New Era . University of Connecticut , 5 May 2008. Web. 13 May 2009. < http://www.tne.uconn.edu/Podcasts.htm>. <See It!>

In-text Citation: Many students who plagiarize are overachievers who will not accept anything less than perfect grades (Stephens).

PRINT SOURCES

Books. MLA 5.5.2 – 5.5.5

Author. Title . Place of Publication: Publisher, Date. Format.

Examples:

Single Author:

Boyer, Ernest L. College: The Undergraduate Experience in America . New York: Harper & Row, 1987. Print.

In-text citation: Students' beliefs about college differ from those of their parents (Boyer 12).

Multiple Authors:

Siebert, Al, Laurence N. Smith and Timothy L. Walter. Student Success: How to Succeed in College and Still Have Time For Your Friends . Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 2000. Print.

In-Text citation: Successful learners study more efficiently (Siebert, Smith and Walter 72).

Corporate Author:

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Historical Atlas of the Holocaust . New York: Macmillan, 1996. Print.

In-Text citation: The Minsk Ghetto in the Soviet Union housed about 80,000 Jews between 1941 and 1943 (United States Holocaust Memorial Museum 56-57).


Works in an anthology. MLA 5.5.6

Author. "Title." Anthology Title . Editor. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date. Pages. Format.

Example:

Naylor, Gloria. "The Two." Literature for Composition . 6th ed. Ed. Sylvan Barnet, William Burto, William E. Cain and Marcia Stubbes. New York: Longman, 2003. 740-745. Print.

In-Text citation: "It was becoming a drain to be continually called upon for this nurturing and support that she just didn’t understand" (Naylor 743).


Scholarly Journal Articles (Print). MLA 5.4.2-5.4.4

Author. "Article Title." Name of Journal Volume. Issue (Date): Pages - if no pages use n.pag. Format.

(Note: Include as much Volume/Issue/Date information as the journal provides.)

Example:

Ballard, Mary E., Shavonda Green, and Caroline Granger. "Affiliation Flirting, and Fun: Mock Aggressive Behavior in College Students." Psychological Record 53.1 (2003): 33-49. Print.

In-Text citation: Ballard, Green and Grander agree that mock aggression is typically a positive behavior (42).


Newspaper Articles (Print). MLA 5.4.5

Author. "Article Title." Name of Newspaper [City] Date Month Year, Edition: Pages. Format. (Note: Include as much Date/Edition information as the newspaper provides.)

Example:

Perlez, Jane. "Vienna to Go Ahead With Holocaust Shrine." New York Times [East Coast] 4 Mar. 1998, Late ed.: A8. Print.

In-text Citation: The city of Vienna compromised by agreeing to build the shrine several feet from the site of the medieval synagogue (Perlez A8).


Magazine Articles (Print). MLA 5.4.6

Author. "Article Title." Name of Magazine Date: Pages. Format.

Example:

Loomis, Carol J. "Everything in History Was Against Them." Fortune 13 Apr. 1998: 64-85. Print.

In-Text Citation: "Only 10 when the Nazis marched into his city of Lodz, Poland, in 1939, Jack Tramiel (then named Idek Tramielski) initially had a kid's thrilled reaction to the sheer spectacle of the scene…" (Loomis 80).


Reference Book Articles (Print). MLA 5.5.7

Author (if available). "Article Title." Title of Encyclopedia . Edition Number. Date. Format. For specialized reference works, give full publication information (Note: If articles are arranged alphabetically, do not include volume or page numbers.)

Examples:

Author Listed:

Silverstein, Josef. "Burma." Encyclopedia Americana . 2005 ed. Print.

In-text Citation: Burma gained its independence in 1948 (Silverstein 10).

Dictionary - No Author Listed:

"Genre." Def. 2. Websters’ Third New International World Dictionary . 1986. Print.

In-text Citation: Young adult books certainly have "a particular style, form or content" ("Genre" def.2).

Specialized Reference Source:

"Karma." The International Dictionary of Religion . Ed. Richard Kennedy. New York : Crossroad, 1984. Print.

In-text Citation: According to the idea of "Karma," church volunteers will be rewarded later in their lives.

Specialized Literary Reference Source:

Inge, Tonette Bond and William E. Grant. "Katherine Chopin." Dictionary of Literary Biography: American Short-Story Writers, 1880-1910 . Ed. Bobby Ellen Kimbel and William E. Grant. Vol. 78. Detroit: Gale Research, 1989. 90-110. Print.

In-Text Citation: Surprisingly, Chopin did not begin to write fiction until the age of 38 (Inge 91).


Excerpts from books or articles reprinted in anthologies (Print). MLA 5.5.6

Use this format to cite articles or excerpts from collections of literary criticism and other multi-volume anthologies.

Author Last Name, First Name. “Original article title.” Original book or journal . Original publication information including date. Original pages. Rpt. in Title of Collection or Work . Ed. Name of editor. Vol #. Place of publication: Publisher, Year. Pages in this volume.

Examples:

Book:

Olderman, Raymond M. “The Grail Knight Arrives.” Beyond the Wasteland: A Study of the American Novel in the Nineteen-Sixties . New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1972. 35-51. Excerpt rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism . Ed. Carolyn Riley. Vol. 3. Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1975. 266-267.

In-text Citation: According to Olderman, “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest is a modern fable pitting a fabulous kind of good against a fabulous kind of evil” (267).

Article:

Seligman, Craig. "'Maus' Redux." Village Voice (3 December 1991). 65-66. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism . Ed. James P. Draper. Vol. 76. Detroit: Gale Research, 1993. 241-242.

In-text Citation: Seligman (242) argues that the language in this comic book novel is even more effective than the illustrations.

OTHER COMMON SOURCES

Film or Video. MLA 5.7.3

Title . Dir. Name of Director. Perf. Names of Performers. Name of Distributor, Year of Release. Format.

(Note: Include original release date if appropriate – see DVD example)

Example:

Film:

Into the Arms of Strangers: Stories of the Kindertransport . Dir. Mark Jonathan Harris. Perf. Judi Dench. Warner Brothers, 2000. Film.

In-text Citation: Approximately 10,000 children traveled to England via the Kindertransport to escape the Holocaust (Into the Arms...).

DVD:

The Godfather . Dir. Francis Ford Coppola. Perf. Marlon Brando and Al Pacino. 1972. Paramount, 2001. DVD.

In-text Citation: When the American justice system fails his family, Bonasera asks for Don Corleone’s help (The Godfather).


Television or Radio Broadcast. MLA 5.7.1

"Title of episode or segment if appropriate." Other information about program if needed (i.e. narrator, director, performer etc). Title of Program or Series . Name of Network. Call letters, City of publication, Broadcast date. Format.

(Note: Information relating to the episode follows the episode; information related to the series follows the series).

Examples:

Television:

"Mushroom." Cultivating Life . Host Sean Conway. PBS. WGHB, Boston, 13 May 2009. Television.

In-text Citation: Shitake mushrooms are easy to grow at home using prepackaged kits ("Mushroom").

Television (no city):

"Dead Man Inc." Gangland . History Channel. A & E Television Networks, 14 May 2009. Television.

In-text Citation: The gang was formed in the 1990s and has since infiltrated the Maryland prison system ("Dead Man Inc.").

Radio:

"Does it Cost More to be Poor?" Tell Me More . Host Michele Martin. National Public Radio. WNYC, New York, 20 May 2009. Radio.

In-text Citation: It is common for the "urban poor" to barter with neighbors for good and services ("Does it Cost More…?).


Interviews. MLA 5.7.7

Person being interviewed. Interviewer if known. "Title of episode or segment if appropriate." Title of Program or Series . Name of Network. Call letters, City of publication. Broadcast date. Format.

Examples

Broadcast or Published Interview:

Kelly, Kate. Interview by Dave Davies. "The Harder They Fall: The Last Days Of Bear Stearns." Fresh Air . National Public Radio. WNYC, New York. 12 May 2009. Radio.

In-text Citation: One of the main reasons that investors lost faith in Bear Stearns was because of its "large mortgage portfolio" (Kelly).

Personal Interview:

Dempsey, Megan. Personal Interview. 29 June 2009.
Egan, Robert. Telephone Interview. 29 June 2009.

In-text Citation: Many librarians are glad to see that the new MLA citation standards make it "so much easier for students to correctly cite online sources" (Dempsey).

Citing Sources in the Text of the Paper

Sources with Authors. MLA 6.1 – 6.4

  • Supply the author's last name and a page number in parentheses just next to the material that you are citing. Or, if you mention the author's name in your text, simply provide the page number (MLA 6.3).

    Example: Seligman (242) argues that the language in this comic book novel is even more effective then the illustrations.

  • If there is no page number , provide just the author's name (MLA 6.4.1).
  • If you have two or more entries by the same author in your bibliography, put a comma after the author and provide a brief title as well (MLA 6.4.6).

    Example: (Kohn, "Unconditional Teaching" 24)

  • Two or more works in a single parenthetical reference are separated by semicolons (MLA 6.4.9).

    Example: (Kohn, "Unconditional Teaching" 24; Larson 52)

  • Online and print sources are cited the same way.

Example Text:

(the text below is taken from: Radford, Marie L. and Gary P. Radford. "Power, Knowledge, and Fear: Feminism, Foucault, and the Stereotype of the Female Librarian." Library Quarterly 67.3 (1997): 250-266.)

The image of the librarian as a "little old lady with the bun, the shawl, the wire specs, and the pencils sticking out of her hair" (Manley 650) or a "fussy old woman of either sex, myopic and repressed, brandishing or perhaps cowering behind a date stamp" (Crowell 167) is totally inconsistent with the growing development and widespread use of electronic information retrieval technologies in modern libraries.

Locke Morrisey and Donald Case have demonstrated that the stereotype of the female librarian "is strongly pronounced among students of all ages" and that their perceptions are primarily shaped by "powerful" television, film, and print images (454).

The works cited section for these paragraphs would appear:

Example Works Cited

Crowell, Penny. "Not All in the Mind: The Virile Profession." Library Review 29 (1980): 167-75. Print.
Manley, Will. "On Facing the Public." Wilson Library Bulletin 34 (1984): 630. Print.
Morrisey, Locke J. and Donald O. Case. "There Goes My Image: The Perception of Male Librarians by Colleague, Student and Self." College and Research Libraries 49 (1988): 453-64. Print.

Sources without Authors. MLA 6.4.4

  • If there is no author , provide the full title , if brief, or a shortened title with a page number (if available).
  • Online and print sources are cited the same way in the text.

Example Text:

A New York Times editorial called Ralph Ellison "a writer of universal reach" ("Death" A18).

Example Works Cited

"Death of a Writer." Editorial. New York Times 20 Apr. 1994: A18. Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe . Lexis-Nexis. Web. 10 December 2004
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